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Devoted to the liberation of money and credit, and the restoration of the commons
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Banks create money by making “loans”

November 18, 2015 - 10:06

Here’s a short and sweet video that reports on court case (Daly v First National Bank of Montgomery) in which it was clearly shown how banks create money by making loans, and the illegitimacy of that process.

And if you are facing foreclosure on your mortgage, the three magic words that might forestall the action are “produce the note.” This Fox news report explains it.

Categories: Blogs

2015 Fall Newsletter

November 14, 2015 - 11:04

In this edition

  • Back in the USA
  • My latest article: 50 Ways to Leave the Euro: Greece and the Global Crisis
  • Raising the debt ceiling—again…, and again…, and..!
  • Seizing an Alternative—conference recordings
  • Homage to Peter Etherden
  • The case of Iceland – Is democracy more important than financial markets
  • Gates Foundation chooses Cyclos for E-pay Innovation Award

Back in the USA

I’ve been back in Tucson since early October, resting and recuperating from five months of travel and an exhausting summer tour of Europe. I’m corresponding, writing, advising and waiting to see what new opportunities might present themselves.

My tour of Europe included presentations, interviews, and/or workshops in Greece, Italy, and Ireland. As recordings of my presentations become available, I will be posting them on my website So far I’ve posted interviews from Athens and Sardinia, and the slide show from the workshop I conducted in Athens. The audio of my August 28 Dublin presentation, The Liberation of Money and Credit, can be heard at


My latest article

Common Dreams has just published my latest article, 50 Ways to Leave the Euro: Greece and the Global Crisis. In this article I provide my prescriptions for how Greece (and other countries) might relieve their impossible debt burden, and I describe ways in which domestic liquidity can be created apart from the euro regime and without inflation. You can read it here. I’ve also posted it on my website as a PDF file.

As an aside, in addition to Greece’s economic and financial problems, the country has been overwhelmed by a flood of refugees and migrants. It is reported that more than a half million have arrived on Greek islands just in the past 10 months. This refugee crisis that is now threatening all of Europe is a direct result of the destabilizing actions by the Western powers attempting over the past several years to reshape the politics of the Middle-east and North Africa. Their agenda goes way beyond oil, but few people are paying any attention. Former Reagan administration official Paul Craig Roberts is one of many sources that provide deeper insights, for example in his article, The Re-enserfment of Western Peoples.


Raising the debt ceiling—again…, and again…, and..!

Every few years the U.S. Congress goes through the charade of debating whether or not to raise the limit on the government debt. In the end they always do. According to Wikipedia, “the US has raised its debt ceiling (in some form or other) at least 90 times in the 20th century.[11] The debt ceiling has been raised 74 times since March 1962,[12] including 18 times under Ronald Reagan, eight times under Bill Clinton, seven times under George W. Bush, and five times under Barack Obama.”

Why continue the pretense that there is any choice about it? Why can’t the government balance its budget and why does the national debt keep increasing? The real answer, which I wrote a quarter century ago, will probably surprise you. To learn what it is, see my recent post at


Seizing an Alternative—conference recordings

Recordings made at last June’s Seizing an Alternative conference at Pomona College are being compiled and made available at the Pando Populus website. These include several sessions from Track 6: Political Collapse in which I participated.

Session 1 featured presentations by John B. Cobb, Jr., Ellen Brown, and Thomas Greco. In this recording, John Cobb’s introduction is followed by Ellen Brown’s presentation (starting at minute 6:45) and Thomas Greco’s (starting at minute 22:24 and ending at minute 44:15). A Q&A session runs from minute 44:15 to the end. In my portion I provide a brief overview of private currencies and exchange systems and present some of my early prescriptions for addressing the Greek debt crisis.

Session 7 featured presentations by Ellen Brown, Thomas Greco, and Kevin Clark. My presentation begins at minute 27:18 and ends at minute 54:30. In it I answer the fundamental questions about money and the exchange process, and how to reclaim the credit commons. _______________________________________________

Homage to Peter Etherden

I was very sad to learn recently that Peter Etherden has passed away. Peter was one of my very good friends with whom I always enjoyed visiting and discussing our mutual interests. I’m glad that I got to see him a few weeks ago in London just prior to my return to the U.S.

I first met Peter in 1986 in Zurich where we both attended the Fourth World Assembly that was organized by John Papworth. Over the subsequent years we corresponded regularly and we were able to meet several times during my visits to England. One of my fondest memories is of my visit in 2002 when he and his partner Connie lived aboard their boat in Rye harbor. During that visit the three of us sailed across the English Channel to Bologne where we spent a few days at mooring in the harbor. I also recall 2001 when my then partner Donna and I visited Rye and the four of us went off to explore Devon and Cornwall, a very beautiful part of Britain.

Peter was a diligent researcher and prolific writer whose interests were wide ranging. He will be greatly missed. Many of his research compilations and his writings under various pen names can be found at


The case of Iceland – Is democracy more important than financial markets?

In his 2012 CBC interview, the President of Iceland very articulately describes the situation as it played out in his country during the global financial crisis that began in 2008. He describes the ways in which the failure of Icelandic banks was handled, the strong reaction from the British and Dutch governments, the reasons behind his government’s actions, and what really is at stake, not only for Iceland but for every country in the world. See it at MQzI.


Gates Foundation chooses Cyclos for E-pay Innovation Award

In case you missed the news, as I did, the Social TRade Organisation (STRO) last year was chosen by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to receive the prestigious E-pay Innovation Award for its Cyclos secure payments platform. Cyclos was chosen to receive the award over 9 other contenders from around the world. The $50,000 award was given at a ceremony at the annual conference of the Electronic Transactions Association in Las Vegas.


Finally, as Thanksgiving day in the U.S. approaches, I’m reminded of how blessed my life has been. It is in the spirit of gratitude that I thank you for your support and wish you all a happy holiday season.


Categories: Blogs

50 ways to leave the Euro: Greece and the global crisis

November 8, 2015 - 13:42

My two month visit to Greece last summer prompted me to develop some proposals that might be applied in Greece and other countries where the government has become insolvent. I’ve written these up in an article that was recently published in the online journal, Common Dreams.  You can read it there or here below. It was also republished on Resilience and can be found there.

50 ways to leave the Euro: Greece and the global crisis
By Thomas H. Greco, Jr.

The problem is all inside your head, I told the Greeks
The answer is easy, you need only stop the leaks
The power is yours to claim the freedom that you seek
There must be fifty ways to leave the Euro
(Apologies to Simon and Garfunkel)

Following the resounding “NO” vote by the Greek people on the bailout conditions in the July referendum, the negotiations between the Greek government and “the institutions” resumed with the expectation that a better deal for Greece would ensue. The outcome was quite the contrary. Greek negotiators ended up agreeing to a bailout deal that was far more onerous than the one the voters had rejected. Why?

The harsh reality is that the Greek government is insolvent. Having been lured into the debt-trap and the shared euro currency by western oligarchs using a combination of measures, including outright fraud, Greece was forced to accept the onerous conditions attached to the first two bailouts. Now it has been bludgeoned into accepting a third. The weapon of choice is the euro currency itself which is being wielded by the European Central Bank (ECB). By throttling the flow of euro currency into the country, the ECB last summer created near chaos in the Greek economy. This, and the threat of even more severe punishment in the future, was enough to bring the Greek government to heel.

With sovereign debt up around 180% of GDP, there is no way that the Greek government will ever be able to grow its way out of the current mess. The draconian measures demanded by the creditor institutions will just make it worse. Even the IMF has acknowledged (with apparent reluctance) that some debt relief is necessary for the Greek economy to recover. The new agreement forces the Greek government to yield even more sovereignty and to open its economy and its people more fully to exploitation by corporate interests and transnational banking institutions. Read the entire article…

Categories: Blogs

State of Texas passes bill to establish a gold depository bank

November 3, 2015 - 11:42

In a landslide vote Texas lawmakers approved (by a margin of 140 to 4 in the Texas House and 27 to 4 in the state Senate) a bill to establish a gold depository bank. The bill was signed into law in mid-June by Republican Governor Greg Abbott.

In this interview Texas State Representative Giovanni Capriglione, author of the bill explains how this new law came into being and what it does.

The full interview can be heard here.

This is a surprising turn of events that is reminiscent of the private NCBA (National Commodity and Barter Association), a gold depository that was harassed and finally put out of business by government thirty years ago.

This bank, if it ever comes into being under the aegis of the Texas state government, will not so easily be quashed by the feds, After all, you “don’t mess with Texas.” It could lead to a payment system that is independent of the Federal Reserve and provide depositors with some protection against the continuing inflation of the US dollar.

But the gold market is very much manipulated and controlled by the big holders, the various central banks and national governments around the world. It would be better to hold an assortment of basic commodities on deposit to better assure that depositors’ purchasing power will be maintained. Better yet, state governments should support the creation of credit clearing exchanges that enable buyers and sellers to trade with one another without using money at all but simply offset each trader’s payments for purchases against their receipts from sales. In that case, the commodity assortment need only be used to define a unit for denominating members’ account balances. This and other innovative approaches to exchange are all explained .in my books, especially The End of Money and the Future of Civilization, and in my various interviews and presentations on this website.

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Categories: Blogs

Why Can’t Governments Balance Their Budgets?

October 15, 2015 - 13:41

This is a question I answered more than a quarter century ago in Part I of my book, Money and Debt: A Solution to the Global Crisis. It is a question that gets scant attention from politicians and economists who are willing to speak only about the need for perpetual economic growth and keeping the government debt at “manageable” levels, never asking why government debt is necessary or how it might be eliminated.

When I first undertook to answer this question, the debt crisis was already well underway and global in scope. Since then the situation has become more critical with debt levels reaching astronomical levels.

What I said in 1990 began with this:

The whole world today seems to be awash in a sea of debt which threatens to drown us all. Many Third World countries, despite their huge increases in production for export, are unable to pay even the interest due on their accumulated indebtedness to Western banks and governments. In the U. S., the levels of both public (government) and private debt are increasing at alarming rates. The Federal budget deficits of recent years far exceed anything thought possible just a decade ago. Why is this happening and why is it a problem? In order to understand that, one must first understand some financial facts of life.

Here are the essential points of my argument:

  1. Almost all of the money in every country is created by commercial banks when they make loans either to the private sector or to governments (by purchasing government bonds, notes, etc.),
  2. Money is extinguished when loan principal is repaid,
  3. The interest that banks charge on these loans causes the amount owed to grow as time passes,
  4. Causing the aggregate amount owed to banks to always exceed the supply of money in circulation,
  5. Requiring that banks make additional loans to keep the supply of money in circulation from falling behind the amounts needed for existing loans to be “serviced” (repayment of part of the principal plus the interest due) in order to avoid a cascade of defaults and economic depression,
  6. And that this “debt imperative” that is built into the global money system is the driver of the economic “growth imperative” that results in superfluous economic output and its attendant depletion of physical resources, despoliation of the environment, increasing disparities in income and wealth distribution, and many other problems that plague modern civilization.
  7. That physical limits to economic output on a finite planet make this money system unsustainable over the long term.
  8. That there are practical limits to the amount of debt that the private sector is able or willing to incur.
  9. That chronic government budget deficits are therefore a political expedient that is necessary to keep this flawed system from collapsing as governments assume the role of “borrower of last resort.”
  10. That politicians are quite willing that governments play this role since it gives them the power to take much more value out of the economy than the revenues available by means of overt taxation.
  11. That bankers, for their part, by monopolizing the allocation of credit in the economy and charging interest on it, are able to enrich themselves and exercise tremendous power over the political process making a sham of democratic government.

The empirical evidence strongly supports my analysis. You only need to look at charts showing the growth of debt over time to see it growing at an accelerating rate (geometrically), a pattern that reflects the compound interest function that is an inherent feature of our global political money system.

You can read my original 1989 exposition of these points at Money and Debt: a Solution to the Global Crisis, Part I, and their subsequent elaboration in my latest book, The End of Money and the Future of Civilization,

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Categories: Blogs

The Financial Times discovers mutual credit clearing

September 19, 2015 - 09:08

Journalist Edward Posnett, in an article that appears this weekend in the Financial Times magazine, describes the origins and operations of Sardex, a mutual credit clearing exchange that I visited last month and reported on here.

Posnett’s article, The Sardex factor, is fairly well written and begins with the subtitle: When the financial crisis hit Sardinia, a group of local friends decided that the best way to help the island was to set up a currency from scratch. You can read the full article here.

While I consider Sardex to be among “the best of the breed” and a trade exchange model worth replicating, it is by no means unique. Posnett’s article is well worth reading but I fault it on two counts, first for ignoring the scores of similar commercial trade exchanges that have been operating successfully around the world for the past several decades, and secondly for failing to emphasize the crucial importance of the value proposition that mutual credit clearing provides—the provision of liquidity to a local or domestic economy, independent of the banking system and without the disruptive and destabilizing imposition of interest.

There are several well run commercial trade exchanges but as I said in my interview at Sardex, most trade exchange operators are too complacent and satisfied with their modest levels of business success.

The ‘special sauce” that seems to make Sardex stand out is the underlying values and social mission of the founders. Their primary purpose in launching their credit clearing exchange was to help improve the local economy of their home island. I hope that will continue to inspire their operations and development in the years to come.

They have tried to assist entrepreneurs in six or seven other regions of Italy to replicate their design and operations, but told me that the results have been disappointing. I’m speculating that it may be for lack of that “special sauce.” If that’s the case, then successful replication will require that they work selectively with social entrepreneurs who share the same values and mission of serving the common good.

That seems to be quite a rare breed right now, so these people will need to be nurtured through a process of selection and education–perhaps somewhat akin to what the Jesuits have historically done. The need is for people who have the right values, strong motivation, and technical competencies to create the new socio-economic paradigm.

The interview that I gave at the Sardex offices during my visit focuses on The Changing Picture in Complementary Currencies and can be viewed in the post below or on YouTube at The pictures that I took are in my online photo gallery at,

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Categories: Blogs

The changing picture in complementary currencies

September 6, 2015 - 00:36

During my August visit to the Sardex trade exchange on the island of Sardinia, they recorded (on August 13, 2015) this short interview. In it I cover a few important points on the liquidity problem and how commercial trade exchanges help to solve it.

Categories: Blogs

Newsletter — Summer 2015

August 23, 2015 - 23:09

Upcoming Ireland Events and My Remaining Tour Itinerary
My Activities in Greece, an abbreviated sketch
The Greek Crisis

The summer has gone pretty much according to the plan I laid out in my Spring Newsletter, with of course the inevitable addition of things that have popped up spontaneously. I’m sorry I’ve been too busy to report about all of it, even though I’m sure many of my readers would want to know. My main reason for writing now is to highlight the agenda for the remainder of my summer tour in case some of you happen to be in the neighborhood of Ireland, Scotland or England. I hadn’t really planned to visit Italy but here I am—in Rome after visits to Tuscany and Sardinia (more on that below). I’m now in Ireland for the final events of my summer tour.

Here’s what I’ll be doing.
Ireland Events and My Remaining Tour Itinerary
25 to 27 August 2015. I’ll be at Cloughjordan Ecovillage to participate in the P2P Summer School program on The Art of Commoning. Then on Friday, 28 August, I will give a lecture at Trinity College, Dublin, followed by a panel discussion. And on Saturday, 29 August, I will conduct a workshop at the same venue. Here are the details.
Friday August 28th 19:00 – 21:00
Talk: The Liberation of Money and Credit
Where: CONNECT (Formerly CTVR) Dunlop Oriel House, 34 Westland Row, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin.
On the evening of Friday August 28th, Thomas Greco will give a presentation on The Liberation of Money and Credit, outlining the fundamental importance of reclaiming the credit commons and showing how communities and businesses can reduce their dependence on bank borrowing and conventional, political forms of money. After the talk Thomas will join a panel with Michel Bauwens and Kevin Flanagan of the P2P Foundation, Dr Rachel O’Dwyer of Trinity College Dublin and Graham Barnes of Feasta for a Q&A session.

Saturday August 29th 10:00 – 16:00
Workshop: The Exchange Revolution: Taking Complementary Currencies and Moneyless Trading to a New Level
Where: CONNECT (Formerly CTVR) Dunlop Oriel House, 34 Westland Row, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin.
On Saturday, Thomas will run a workshop for currency activists, practitioners, researchers, and social entrepreneurs on The Exchange Revolution: Taking complementary currencies and moneyless trading to a new level, also at the CONNECT venue in Dublin. Anyone with a specific interest in developing and extending the impact of community currencies, mutual credit, and other complementary exchange mechanisms is invited to attend.
Both events are sponsored and hosted by CONNECT (formerly CTVR –, at their Dublin city centre venue and supported by Feasta, the Foundation for the Economics of Sustainability ( and P2P Foundation Ireland.
Both Dublin events are free but people are asked to register at:
Tuesday, 1 September, at Queens College, Belfast
Evening Lecture, Communities, Currencies and the Commons: Democratising money creation & enterprise after the Euro-Greek crisis, with Thomas Greco at Queens College, (Senate Room) at 7.30pm (registration at 7.15pm) hosted by the School of Law partnered by Positive MoneyNI. The talk will be followed by panel discussion.
Coordinator – William Methven,

From Belfast, I will travel to Edinburgh, Scotland for a few days of exploring, then to London. I’m scheduled to fly back to San Francisco on September 9.
My Activities in Greece, an abbreviated sketch
Altogether, I spent a little more than three weeks at the Kalikalos Holistic Summer School during the months of June and July. Kalikalos is located on the Mt. Pelion peninsula where the views are spectacular, the mountain villages delightful, and the nearby beaches inviting, all of which provides a good balance of work, play and living in community with people from diverse places. In this ever-changing community of students, workshop leaders, volunteers, facilitators-in-residence, and staff, everyone pitches in to prepare meals, clean up, and share their special gifts. The daily program routine leaves plenty of time for recreation and many people choose to go down the mountain to the beach in the afternoons (about a 20 minute ride) or to hike the ancient donkey trails that connect the villages. Healthy living is a fundamental aspect of the Kalikalos experience with plenty of opportunity for yoga, meditation, tai chi and whatever other modes of centering people care to share. Meals are vegetarian and based mainly on fresh whole foods and traditional Greek ingredients—local olives. olive oil, feta cheese, locally baked bread, tomatoes, cucumbers, and vegetables from Kalikalos’ own gardens.
During my first week there I gave two presentations and conducted sessions in which we played two of my simulation games, Money Monopoly and Free Exchange. Then in July during the workshop on Solidarity Economy, I participated in most of the sessions and gave two presentations on the money problem and exchange altenatives.

While my work on exchange alternatives in Greece has been mostly with private groups and activists, I have developed proposals for creating domestic and community liquidity at all levels ranging from the bottom upward to include grassroots initiatives, business associations, municipal governments, and even the national government. I will be publishing specific details about these proposals in the near future. I am also continuing to work with colleagues in Volos on laying out the framework for a nationwide network of localized credit clearing exchanges.
During the last weekend in July I conducted a two day workshop in Athens for a sizable group of participants interested, or active in programs to create complementary liquidity. In the first session our discussions were based on my slide show on the Greek situation, and in the second, my presentation on the issues that need to be addressed in Taking Moneyless Exchange to Scale. That slide show is posted on my website at

On Wednesday, July 29, I was interviewed on Porto Kali internet radio in Athens (in English with Greek translation). You can listen to it at _________________________________________________
The Greek Crisis
The Greek debt crisis has been all over the news lately so most everyone is aware of it, but most people are not aware of the underlying causes or what is being done to the Greek nation by the financial and political powers-that-be. Several of my recent posts at have dealt with that topic. In addition, there have been some very good recent articles that clearly explain it. These three are especially enlightening:
GREECE’D: We Voted ‘No’ to slavery, but ‘Yes’ to our chains, by investigative reporter Greg Palast.
The Rest of the Story About Greece: EU’s economic demands seek to derail small business and local communities, paving the way for multinational corporate giants.

• Ellen Brown’s fine article “Guerrilla Warfare Against a Hegemonic Power”: The Challenge and Promise of Greece

And if you want to understand the larger agenda of which the Greek situation is indicative, be sure to listen to Ellen Brown’s interview with Dr. Paul Craig Roberts, Greece-y Mess – 07.08.15, at
Last week I had occasion to visit the Italian island of Sardinia and spend a few hours meeting with the founders and managers of a commercial trade exchange called Sardex.
I’ve known about Sardex since almost its beginning five years ago and have corresponded over the past few years with Giuseppe Littera, one of its founders, but this was the first opportunity I’ve had to get an inside look at their operation. I came away with a better understanding of how they operate and the impression that the Sardex structures, procedures, and protocols come closer to optimal than any other trade exchange I’ve seen. It appears to be a developing model that can be both scalable and replicable.
You can read my brief but more complete report here, and. you can get a pretty good picture of the distinctive features of Sardex by viewing Giuseppe Littera’s presentation (in English) that was made at a conference in Volos, Greece, in 2014. You can find it on YouTube at,
All best wishes for a playful and enjoyable summer,

Categories: Blogs

Sardex, an emerging model for credit clearing exchanges?

August 20, 2015 - 01:18

Last week I had occasion to visit the Italian island of Sardinia and spend a few hours meeting with the founders and managers of a commercial trade exchange called Sardex. Here below is an abbreviated report of what I learned. The pdf version of the report can be found here.

Sardex, a brief report
by Thomas H. Greco, Jr. August 15, 2015
I recently spent a few days on the Italian island of Sardinia conferring with the founders and administrators of Sardex (, a commercial credit clearing exchange that has been notable for its success in organizing small businesses and service providers on this island of about 1.6 million people.

I’ve known about Sardex since almost its beginning five years ago and have corresponded over the past few years with Giuseppe Littera, one of its founders, but this was the first opportunity I’ve had to get an inside look at their operation. I came away with a pretty good understanding of how they operate and the impression that the Sardex structures, procedures, and protocols come closer to optimal than any other trade exchange I’ve seen. It appears to be a developing model that is both scalable and replicable.

I will not attempt to provide here a comprehensive report or detailed analysis, rather I will highlight a few major points and provide some sources of additional information for those who are interested in doing their own research.

Some highlights:
Current membership: ~3,000
Current transaction turnover: ~1.5 million euro equivalent per month
Expected turnover for 2015: 50 million
Velocity of credit circulation: 12 times per year
Employees included as sub-accounts: 1,000

When I asked about the key factors that account for their success, here is some of what I was told:

1. Founders are dedicated to the mission to relocalize and rehumanize the economy and to reconnect people by enabling the creation of interest-free local liquidity based on the production capacity of local businesses.

2. Social solidarity and cultural cohesion, while very important and part of the mission, were NOT a pre-existing factor that would account for their early success. In fact, they have had to work hard to develop social solidarity and cooperation amongst their members, but this is now changing. One account broker told me, “I can see how behavior of many of our members has changed. When the financial crisis first began, they were starting to lay off employees or cut their wages, and they were reluctant to spend their euros. This made matters worse as the circulation of money slowed down. But as they began to participate in the process of earning and spending trade credits, they began to increase pay to their workers and to invest in their education. In one case, when a member’s shop was burglarized, other members stepped up to help by donating some of their trade credits to help their fellow member recover from the loss.”

That anecdote demonstrates the differences in behavior that results when people experience scarcity compared to when they experience abundance. In this case, the scarcity of euros caused behavior to change in the direction of reduced willingness to spend and the contraction of overall economic activity. But their experience with trade credit was much different. Realizing the greater availability of trade credits, and finding it easier to earn them, leads people to experience abundance and to be more generous and spend more liberally.

3. I was surprised to learn that the Sardex revenue model relies mainly upon initiation fees and annual membership fees (collected in euros); and that they had decided early-on to stop charging fees on transactions. For me, that approach is counter intuitive in that I have long held the view that recruitment would be most successful if membership were made easy, low cost, and risk free, and that it seems reasonable to apply the principle that users pay in proportion to the amount of services they receive. In this case, that principal would mean that those that receive more credit clearing services should pay more. Well, this may be a case where successful practice trumps rational theory. Marketing specialists should look closely at the dimensions of this phenomenon.

There is however some logic in this approach in that, since the cost of participation is relatively fixed, members should seek to maximize the benefits of their membership by trading more within the network. Initiation fees are set according to the size of the business and range from 150 to 1,000 euros. Annual membership fees are likewise based mainly on turnover and range from 350 to 2,500 euros.

4. Strong member support by an effective staff of brokers who help to arrange trades, especially for those that have high earning capacity to avoid excessive accumulation and high positive trade credit balances.

5. Recruitment strategy tries to replicate the supply chain, i.e., bring in businesses that are the suppliers of existing members or prospective members.

6. “Solidarity threshold.” Requirement that members offer their goods and services for trade credit at the same prices as their euro prices, and that payment be accepted 100% in trade credit on all transactions of less than 1,000 euros. “Blended trades,” i.e., payment in a combination of trade credits and euros are allowed on larger purchases, according to a sliding scale).

7. (a) Restrict membership to companies that have a registered office in Sardinia. This promotes social solidarity and excludes large multi-national corporations. (b) Avoid “saturation” (accepting too many members that offer the same line of products or services).
[While I am fully supportive of the former of these, and would indeed, permanently exclude multi-national companies, this latter practice of avoiding saturation I consider to be of use only in the initial stage of establishing credit clearing as a credible means of exchange and an effective source of local liquidity. Ultimately, I believe that membership must be open to any community-based small or medium enterprise (SME) that meets the basic qualifications for membership. Of course, not all of them will qualify for lines of credit.]

8. Fully compliant with reporting and tax regulations. Transparency is a matter of fundamental importance.

9. Emphasis on monetizing the unused capacity of members. Connecting unused supplies with unmet needs is a primary benefit of credit clearing services.

The Sardex company has been consulting with other groups to replicate their system in seven other regions around Italy. In the future, Sardex is planning to initiate a rebate program to bring consumers into the trading community, which will enhance the circulation of local trade credits, make Sardex better known, and stimulate more sales for their business members.

Here below is a list of a few of the many reports and sources of information about Sardex. Readers are invited to add others as comments.

From an idea to a scalable working model: merging economic benefits with social values in Sardex, by Giuseppe Littera, et al, at the London School of Economic, Inaugural WINIR Conference, 11-14 September 2014, Greenwich, London, UK.
You can get a pretty good picture of the distinctive features of Sardex by viewing Giuseppe Littera’s presentation that was made (in English) at a conference in Volos, Greece, in 2014. It is to be found on YouTube at,
Report (in Italian) in the Italian daily newspaper, La Repubblica: Dalla Sardegna al resto d’Italia. Sardex inventa la moneta complementare. “Abbiamo ripensato l’economia.” [English translation needed.]

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Categories: Blogs